Brand engineering is something entirely different, though it still seeks to manipulate marketing, psychology, and perception. Examples from the automotive industry are informative here. In the late ’80s, the three largest Japanese automakers—Toyota, Nissan, and Honda—each decided to enter the luxury-car market by creating new brands in an effort to distinguish (or, in some cases, to distance) the new products from their previous efforts. So Toyota created Lexus, Nissan launched Infiniti, and Honda added the Acura nameplate. New dealerships were even established to further distance the new brands from the old, so in many cases the Lexus buyer might never encounter the name Toyota. This is brand engineering.